Non verbal observation

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poppyseed
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Non verbal observation

Postby poppyseed » Tue May 03, 2011 10:50 am

Hello...

I am stuck a little on this one, :( I am not sure how to set it out, I know that it should be done under *introduction *aim etc.... but not sure what to write under these? :?:

How many participants did you all use?
I was thinking about 10-15 couples :roll:

I'm not sure though, has really made me start banging my head on the computer desk lol :cry:
Hope to get some help or a little advice soon.

Thankyou greatly Poppyseed. :)
Currently loving university......so excited for the next three years.!!

Papillon
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Joined: Fri Sep 17, 2010 10:15 pm

Re: Non verbal observation

Postby Papillon » Tue May 03, 2011 2:42 pm

Hi, have you had a look at the communications module? Theres some good stuff within teh materials on how to write a report, I think theres also some info and examples on the DLC website that you can download I think theyre just PDF documents.

I observed 10 couples, but I know some people only observed 4. I think you just need to observe as many as you can or as many as you feel necessary, and then if after you have analysed the results ytou find any flaws with your observations then you can put this into your report.

Jan Conway

Re: Non verbal observation

Postby Jan Conway » Tue May 03, 2011 8:00 pm

Hello you need to study about 10 couples

Participants
Couples Males touching females Females touching male
1 * *
2 * *
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Total
Averages
you could do a Mann whitney u test or a chi square test it all depends on what data you want collect.
Then set out as follows..
Title
This should be precise enough to give the reader a good idea of the topic you are investigating
Table of contents
This needs to have all the sections page numbered

Abstract (approximately 150 words)

This is a summary of your Report, and informs the reader what the focus of the research report is about. The abstract should include approximately two sentences from each of the other sections in your report: the theoretical background, the aim and hypothesis, the method, design and participants, a brief outline of the results, the conclusion, and suggestions for further research. Although the abstract comes first, it is usually best to leave the writing of it until the end.

Introduction (approximately 600 words)

This describes why you carried out the study. It should include general theoretical background, identifying the main theories, controversies and investigations of the chosen topic. It is important to concentrate on relevant material. This section is very much like a ‘funnel’, whereby it starts off with a broad perspective and should lead on to the more precise aims and hypotheses under study.


Aims

The overall aim of the study should be stated

Hypotheses

The precise experimental / alternative hypothesis should be included, along with the null hypothesis. This should be as precise and unambiguous as possible. A justification of the direction of the hypothesis should be included (i.e. one-tailed or two-tailed). The minimum level of significance should be stated – this is normally 5% (p = 0.05)







Method (approximately 600 words)

This covers what you did. All details of the method should be reported, so that other researchers could replicate the study if they wished to. Materials used in the study, such as questionnaires, observation checklists and standardised instructions, should be included in the appendices. The method is split in to several sub-sections.

*Design

There are no hard-and-fast rules about what goes in the design section and what goes in the procedure section. The design section should cover:

• The choice of method, such as laboratory experiment, observation and so on;
• The type of design you used (e.g. repeated measures / independent measures or matched pairs);
• The choice of observational technique (if applicable), e.g. time or event sampling;
• The identification of variables, such as the independent variables, dependent variable (if applicable), and confounding variables;
• Ethical considerations

*Participants

This is where you describe your sample. This section should cover:

• The target population described in terms of relevant variables, such as age, gender, socio-economic groups and so on;
• The method you used to obtain your sample, e.g. random, opportunity and so on;
• The actual sample in terms of how many participants there were, how they were selected and recruited, and described in terms of any relevant variables outlined above;
• How participants were allocated to conditions

*Apparatus / materials

This section should include a description of any technical equipment involved, and how it was used. The main point of this section is relevance. Only include materials that are directly relevant to the investigation, not trivial inclusions such as ‘pencil and paper’ (although this may be crucial to some studies!). Include relevant mark schemes for any tests or questionnaires in the appendix


*Standardised procedure

The aim of this section is to allow precise replication of your study. It is a step-by-step description of exactly how your study was conducted. Describe what happened in the order it happened. Details of where the study took place, standardised instructions, and debriefing should all be included. If the instructions are lengthy, then it may be better to place them in an appendix. Try not repeat information that has appeared elsewhere in your method section


*Controls

Sometimes this information is included in the design section. Controls to be mentioned would include counterbalancing, random allocation of participants to groups, single- or double – blind procedures, control of extraneous variables, and what steps were taken to avoid bias in the sampling or experimental procedures.


*Results

This covers what you found. It is a crucial section, since it presents the data you have collected and needs to be presented clearly so others can evaluate your work. The section should be written in connected prose with the support of tables and or figures (graphs) which are referred to in your text. The main features of this section are described in more detail below.

There is an art in tabulating data. If you organise fully before you run your study, there should be no need to write out your raw data more than once. Do not insert it in the body of the text, but in an appendix. Tables and figures in the text will typically be abbreviated or summary versions of the raw data. Each summary table should be clearly headed.

Do not include names of the participants in answer sheets or on questionnaires and so forth. Names should be treated as confidential information. One example answer sheet, questionnaire, etc., should be included in the appendix


*Descriptive statistics

Descriptive statistics are essential, and give the reader a chance to ‘eyeball’ the data. You should try to summarise your results in the most appropriate graphical form. You could include numerical statistics, such as measured of central tendency (mean, mode or median), and/or measures of dispersion (range, standard deviation). Your aim must be to present the key findings in the most straightforward manner. Sometimes the choice of mode of graphical presentation is a difficult one. Label tables and figures clearly, so that the reader understands what inserted values represent (always specify measurement units), and number these tables and figures so that they can be easily referred to in the text. Tables should be numbered and titled above the table; figures and graphs below. Labels on axes should be unambiguous. Do not insert too much information. Indicate the sample size. Make sure the figure makes optimum use of the space available. Join points on line plots with straight lines and not meandering curves. Treat figures (graphs, histograms, etc) as aesthetic products (not easy perhaps!) Do not label figures or tables ‘figure to show…….’ Use a simple but informative title about the variables displayed. Describe the key features briefly in the text, where appropriate. Do not provide both a table and a figure of the same data; this is a waste of time and space. Decide which works best.


*Inferential Statistics

When statistical tests or analyses on the data are conducted, you should state clearly why you have chosen a particular test and what it tests for. This should be in terms of whether the data involve repeated or independent measures, or correlational data. Calculations should not appear in the body of the text but should be shown clearly in an appendix, so that the reader can follow them easily if necessary. Be clear about the outcome of the statistical analyses. In the main text, summarise the key findings and cite test statistics. You should include a statement on the observed and critical table values of the test, the significance level, and whether the test was one-tailed or two-tailed. You must show that you understand what the results of your statistical tests mean. Do the results mean that you accept or reject your null hypothesis? Do not attempt to interpret the results at this stage; leave this to the discussion section.

Discussion (approximately 600 words)

This covers what you think the results mean. The discussion section is one of the most important elements to the research report and is split into four sub-sections.

*Explanation of findings

This must begin with a clear description of the key findings. The findings should be stated in psychological terms in relation to the aims / hypotheses identified earlier. What bearings do your findings have upon the original hypotheses? State what your most important finding is and explain what this illustrates. Remember: all results are results. You must never ignore or dismiss findings simply because they do not fit with previous findings. Science would not progress if

scientists dismissed every finding that they were not looking for. Your purpose is to show why you obtained the results you did, and what they show.

A good researcher will themselves act as a participant before conducting a study. Alternatively, you may have conducted a pilot study. Reports by the participants themselves can be most informative. Often they give information about possible sources of error in the design or procedure. Also, participants tend to adopt different strategies, changing course in the middle of a study. They may not do what you want or expect them to do, and such information can be included in the discussion section, either here in the ‘explanation of findings’ or in the ‘limitations and modifications’ section (or both).

*Relationship to background research

This is where you account for and discuss your results in terms of previous findings. You should refer back to the relevant research studies mentioned in your introduction. Mention any aspects of your design that may account for any differences between your findings and previous ones. If your results support previous reviewed work, then this section may be quite short, although it is still worth emphasising any design or procedural differences that there may be.


*Limitations and modifications

Do not sidestep embarrassing findings or paradoxical results. If the study went ‘wrong’, try to locate possible sources of error. These might include measurement techniques, poor sampling, and lack of controls and / or poor procedures. Even the best designed study is likely to have flaws in the way it was conducted. Outline what was done, what was intended (these may not be the same), and how things might have been improved or modified.

Implications and suggestions for further research

Questions to consider in this section:

• If you were to repeat the study, would you alter the methodology in any way, and why?
• What further experiments are suggested to you by this experiment and its findings?
• Can you think of better ways of testing the hypotheses?
• Do you think that standard studies in the literature might be improved?
• Are there any other applications or implications that arise as a result of your findings?

When making suggestions for further research, only do so if they arise directly out of your results. Try to be precise with your suggestions and do not make general statements such as ‘A lot more work needs to be done in this area’. Specific suggestions, for instance using more participants, eliminating confounding variables such as background environmental noise, and improving standardised instructions are fine, provided you have demonstrated that some of these factors have affected your findings in some way.


Conclusion

Finally, you might end this section with a paragraph which recapitulates the key findings and conclusions which can be drawn from the study.


References

You should cite only authors’ names and dates of publications in the text. You should list all references that you have cited in the text. The purpose of a reference list is to enable others to research the references. Thus, if in doubt, give as much information as possible.


Appendices

As mentioned earlier, you should provide appendices containing:
• the full instructions given to the participants
• the raw data
• calculations for statistical analyses
• lists of words or other stimulus materials for use in the study

The different information should be put in numbered appendices, so that you can refer to them easily in your text. This is not a rough work section, and all information should be presented clearly and unambiguously.
Jan

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Aynsley
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Re: Non verbal observation

Postby Aynsley » Wed May 04, 2011 4:28 pm

wow Jan, your replies are brilliant!!!!! soooooooooooooooo helpful thanks :D

Aynsley :D

cowen122
Posts: 37
Joined: Mon Aug 15, 2011 10:17 pm

Re: Non verbal observation

Postby cowen122 » Sat Feb 18, 2012 3:29 am

Yes Thank you Jan your reply Has helped me out too. :D
Collette
Collette Owen

cowen122
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Re: Non verbal observation

Postby cowen122 » Sun Feb 26, 2012 2:41 am

Hi All

I have got to the results bit, and have become a little confuse as to what I put for DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS? I have chosen to use a simple bar chart to show the overall number of touches, is this what I am suppose to do and also do I have to do a write up about this??

And also I assume I use the Ti calculator at this point, for the INFERENTIAL STATISTICS part.
Thanks any help at this point much appreciated.
Collette
Collette Owen

twood123
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Joined: Mon Apr 09, 2012 4:38 pm

Re: Non verbal observation

Postby twood123 » Tue Apr 10, 2012 2:02 pm

Need help i cant find nothing to evaluate the studies on.
nothing about each of the theorists experiments.
i could cry!! this is 2 day for this one introx x x

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Karen Hayday
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Re: Non verbal observation

Postby Karen Hayday » Thu Apr 19, 2012 10:19 pm

Have you read Jan's post? There is such a lot to find if you use your internet search on the actual theorists and there is also so much in the materials. I really do not undersatand there is lots of evidence on this topic. What book have your bought? This topic is covered in most general psychology books.

Sorry

Karen
DLC Executive Director

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Karen Hayday
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Re: Non verbal observation

Postby Karen Hayday » Thu Apr 19, 2012 10:22 pm

You have to use inferential stats for an experiment and make your table into a 2x2 table by reducing your results appropriately.

Karen
DLC Executive Director

rosey
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Joined: Mon Mar 28, 2011 9:32 am

Re: Non verbal observation

Postby rosey » Tue Apr 24, 2012 10:58 pm

Hi

Yet another resub
Can anyomne please assist me i have failed to meet the following criteria for the NVC report

1.1 identify and explain at least two different research methods (is this asking for questionares, case studies, experiments etc)
1.2 Evaluate the appropriate use of different methods for a variety of purposes (completely lost on this one have no idea what is being asked).
1.3 Evaluate the relative importance of specific practical and therretical factors in the choice of method/design in relation to a particular research topic. (lost as well)

Any help is greatly appreciated

thanks

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Karen Hayday
Director of Studies
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Location: Todmorden West Yorkshire
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Re: Non verbal observation

Postby Karen Hayday » Wed Apr 25, 2012 6:35 pm

rosey wrote:Hi

Yet another resub
Can anyomne please assist me i have failed to meet the following criteria for the NVC report

1.1 identify and explain at least two different research methods (is this asking for questionares, case studies, experiments etc)
1.2 Evaluate the appropriate use of different methods for a variety of purposes (completely lost on this one have no idea what is being asked).
1.3 Evaluate the relative importance of specific practical and therretical factors in the choice of method/design in relation to a particular research topic. (lost as well)

Any help is greatly appreciated

thanks

These are all from the stats 2 assessment so in your report you should have written it up as a lab report, there is a doc in the assessments to explain exactly how to do this . You will also need to go back to the stats materials where it tells what the research methods are but you are on the right lines and you have done an observation experiment have you not?

The differennt methods is sorted by writing up your method properly saying what kind of design the observation was, the variables, the participants etc

The last one is asking you why you chose the method and stats you did over another method and stats.

Hope that this helps

Karen
DLC Executive Director

amycompton
Posts: 14
Joined: Mon Jul 16, 2012 11:08 am

Re: Non verbal observation

Postby amycompton » Mon Jul 16, 2012 12:30 pm

Wheres some good stuff within tech materials on how to write a report, I think theirs also some information and examples on the DLC website that you can download I think they are just PDF documents.

I observed twenty couples, but I know some people only observed 4 or 6. I think you just need to observe as many as you can or as many as you feel necessary, and then if after you have analyzed the results you find any flaws with your observations then you can put this into your report.


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